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Although the history of Law enforcement in Cyprus goes back to 1879 when the first Police Law was passed by the then British Colonial Government which operated a Police Force, the history of the Cyprus Police begins with the establishment of the Republic of Cyprus in 1960.

In 1960 two Public Security Forces were established within the framework of the Constitution: the Police Force, which was responsible for policing the urban areas, and the Gendarmerie, which was responsible for policing rural areas. A Greek-Cypriot Chief and a Turkish-Cypriot Chief administered the two Forces respectively.

The two forces of the Police were joined to form the present police service during the year 1964, shortly after the intercommunal troubles between the Greek and the Turkish communities, as a result of which the Turkish Cypriot officers abandoned their posts. Additionally the conflict created great problems for the Police, who had to handle the situation, along with the then sparsely Cypriot Army, due to the fact that it was the only organized force.

With the creation of the Cypriot National Guard in 1964, the duties of military nature were transferred to the National Guard and the Police was limited back to its usual duties.

The Cyprus Police is the only National Police Service of the Republic of Cyprus and is under the Ministry of Justice and Public Order since 1993.

The duties and responsibilities of the Cyprus Police are set out in the amended Police Law (N.73(1)) of 2004 and include the maintenance of Law and Order, the prevention and detection of crime as well as arresting and bringing offenders to justice.